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Table 3 Gender-specific odds ratios of chronic rotator cuff tendinitis by lifestyle and metabolic factors, Health 2000 Survey, 2000-2001

From: Lifestyle and metabolic factors in relation to shoulder pain and rotator cuff tendinitis: A population-based study

Characteristic Men Women
  Sample % of outcome OR 95% CI Sample % of outcome OR 95% CI
Smoking status         
   Never smoker 537 2.4 1   1497 3.5 1  
   Former smoker 1014 3.5 1.3 0.7-2.3 621 3.1 1.0 0.5-1.8
   Occasional smoker 171 1.2 0.6 0.1-2.5 160 0.7 0.3 0.1-2.0
   Current smoker         
< 10 pack-years 253 0.8 0.3 0.1-1.6 219 2.4 0.9 0.3-2.4
10-20 pack-years 154 0.6 0.3 0.1-2.3 178 3.6 1.4 0.6-3.2
> 20 pack-years 351 3.4 1.3 0.5-3.3 162 1.2 0.4 0.1-1.7
Exercise (times/week)         
. ≤1 1183 2.2 1   1289 2.5 1  
   2-3 886 3.3 1.6 0.9-2.7 1062 2.5 1.1 0.6-1.9
. ≥4 706 2.5 1.0 0.5-1.9 898 3.1 1.2 0.7-2.0
Body mass index         
   Normal (18.5-24.9) 979 1.8 1   1509 2.4 1  
   Underweight (< 18.5) 13 0 -   45 1.4 0.6 0.1-4.6
   Overweight (25.0-29.9) 1245 3.1 1.6 0.9-2.9 1020 2.9 1.0 0.6-1.7
   Obese (≥ 30.0) 457 3.4 1.7 0.8-3.6 533 3.7 1.2 0.6-2.3
Waist circumference         
Men: < 94.0 cm,
Women: < 80 cm
1066 1.7 1   929 1.5 1  
Men: 94.0-101.9 cm 810 3.8 2.0 1.1-3.5 811 3.0 1.6 0.8-3.5
Women: 80.0-87.9 cm         
Men: ≥ 102.0 cm 943 2.9 1.4 0.8-2.4 1581 3.4 1.5 0.7-2.9
Women: ≥ 88.0 cm         
Waist-to-hip ratio1         
   Normal 328 1.0 1   614 2.5 1  
   Increased 1607 2.8 2.4 0.7-8.0 1875 2.3 0.7 0.4-1.4
   High 884 3.1 2.4 0.7-8.4 831 3.8 0.9 0.5-1.8
Metabolic syndrome2         
   No 1970 2.4 1   2296 2.7 1  
   Yes 847 3.4 1.2 0.7-1.9 1037 2.9 0.7 0.4-1.1
Insulin resistance3         
Mean, per each standard deviation increase 2821   1.0 0.9-1.1 3348   0.7 0.4-1.3
Diabetes         
   No 2666 2.5 1   3168 2.7 1  
   Type 1 22 9.4 4.7 1.1-20.3 13 0 -  
   Type 2 143 5.6 1.6 0.7-3.5 175 4.2 0.7 0.3-1.8
C-reactive protein         
   Low < 3 mg/L 2362 2.8 1   2722 2.5 1  
   High > 3 mg/L 441 2.6 0.8 0.4-1.6 589 3.9 1.3 0.8-2.2
Carotid intima-media thickness        
Mean IMT, per each standard deviation (0.23 mm) increase 604   0.7 0.4-1.2 731   0.7 0.3 -1.3
  1. Odds ratios were adjusted for age, education and physical work load factors (working with hands above the shoulder level for at least one hour per day, manual handling of loads heavier than 5 kg at least two times per minute for a minimum of two hours daily and manual handling of loads heavier than 20 kg for at least 10 times per day, working with a vibrating tool for at least two hours, work demanding high handgrip forces for at least one hour, and repetitive movements of the hands or wrists for at least two hours).
  2. 1 In men: Normal < 0.9, increased 0.9-1.0 and obese > 1.0. In women: Normal < 0.8, increased 0.8-0.9 and obese > 0.9.
  3. 2 Three of the following criteria present: 1) Central obesity, defined as waist circumference > 102 cm in men and > 88 cm in women; 2) triglycerides > 1.7 mmol/l; 3) HDL < 1.0 mmol/l in men and < 1.3 mmol/l in women; 4) systolic blood pressure > 130 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 85 mm Hg; and 5) fasting glucose ≥ 6.1 mmol/l.
  4. 3 HOMA-IR: Serum insulin pmol/l × glucose mmol/l/22.5