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Table 1 Background characteristics of the study subjects free of rheumatoid arthritis (N = 6,237), weighted proportion or mean and 95% confidence intervals, Health 2000 Survey, 2000-2001

From: Lifestyle and metabolic factors in relation to shoulder pain and rotator cuff tendinitis: A population-based study

Characteristic Men (N = 2850) Women (N = 3387) P-value
  % Mean 95% CI % Mean 95% CI  
Mean age   50.8 50.2-51.3   52.9 52.4-53.4 < 0.001
Years of education   11.3 11.1-11.4   11.4 11.2-11.5 0.36
Body mass index (kg/m2)   26.6 26.4-26.8   25.9 25.7-26.0 < 0.001
Waist circumference (cm)   97.7 97.3-98.2   88.4 87.9-88.9 < 0.001
Insulin resistance1 (HOMA-IR, mean)   2.8 2.5-3.1   2.3 2.1-2.4 0.001
Current smoking 32   30-34 20   18-22 < 0.001
Exercise (times/week)        
. ≤ 1 43   41-45 39   38-41  
2-3 32   30-34 33   31-35  
. ≥ 4 25   24-27 28   26-30 0.01
Metabolic syndrome2 30   28-32 31   29-33 0.56
Diabetes        
   Type 1 0.8   0.5-1.1 0.4   0.2-0.7  
   Type 2 5   4-6 5   4-6 0.24
High C-reactive protein (> 3 mg/L) 16   14-17 18   16-19 0.03
Carotid intima-media thickness   0.97 0.95-0.99   0.90 0.88-0.92 < 0.001
Shoulder joint pain        
   Unilateral3 9   8-11 10   8-12  
   Bilateral4 6   4-7 7   6-8 0.03
Chronic rotator cuff tendinitis5        
   Possible 1.6   1.1-2.3 1.6   1.2-2.1 0.99
   Probable 1.2   0.8-1.6 1.2   0.9-1.7 0.81
  1. 1 HOMA-IR: Serum insulin pmol/l × glucose mmol/l/22.5
  2. 2 Three of the following criteria present: 1) Central obesity, defined as waist circumference > 102 cm in men and > 88 cm in women; 2) triglycerides ≥ 1.7 mmol/l; 3) HDL < 1.0 mmol/l in men and < 1.3 mmol/l in women; 4) systolic blood pressure ≥ 130 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 85 mm Hg; and 5) fasting glucose ≥ 6.1 mmol/l.
  3. 3 Pain either in right or left shoulder during the preceding 30 days.
  4. 4 Pain in both shoulders during the preceding 30 days.
  5. 5 History of pain in the rotator cuff region lasting for at least 3 months, plus pain during the past month preceding the examination, moderately or slightly restricted movement in the shoulder joint, and pain in one or more active resisted movements (abduction, external rotation, internal rotation), or painful arc of shoulder abduction.