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Table 3 Properties of the ligaments used in this study [29, 41, 42]

From: Biomechanical analysis of the lumbar spine on facet joint force and intradiscal pressure - a finite element study

Ligament ALL PLL LF ISL SSL TL
Elastic modulus (small strain) (MPa) 7.8 10 15 10 8 10
Transition strain (%) 12 11 6.2 14 20 18
Elastic modulus (large strain) (MPa) 20 50 19.5 11.6 15 59
Cross-sectional area (mm 2 ) 53 16 67 26 23 1.8
Length (mm) 13 11 19 13 11 22
Max. failure load (N) 510 384 340 130 200 70
  1. ALL, Anterior Longitudinal Ligament
  2. TL, Transverse Ligament
  3. SSL, SupraSpinous Ligament
  4. PLL, Posterior Longitudinal Ligament
  5. LF, Ligamentum Flavum
  6. ISL, InterSpinous Ligament