Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 6 Hazard ratios (HR) for musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) incidence and incidence of long-term MSD by physical fitness test variables at baseline.

From: Aetiology and risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders in physically active conscripts: a follow-up study in the Finnish Defence Forces

Physical fitness test result Category Total number (% of experienced MSD;% of experienced ≥10 service days lost due to MSDs) HR for MSD incidence (n = 652) * HR for MSD incidence (n = 652) ** HR for long-term MSD incidence (≥10 service days lost) (n = 194) * HR for long-term MSD incidence (≥10 service days lost) (n = 194) **
Running a figure of eight (three attempts, best time [seconds]) Fastest quartile (<6.03) 211 (64; 16) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent)
  Mid 50% (6.03-6.60) 431 (69; 19) 1.2 (1.0-1.5) 1.3 (1.0-1.6) 1.3 (0.8-1.9) 1.2 (0.8-1.9)
  Slowest quartile (>6.60) 215 (71; 22) 1.3 (1.0-1.6) 1.2 (0.9-1.7) 1.4 (0.9-2.2) 1.2 (0.7-2.2)
One-leg standing on a narrow beam (attempts needed to one minute total standing time) Best quartile (1) 201 (63; 17) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent)
  Mid 50% (2-6) 439 (71; 18) 1.1 (0.9-1.4) 1.1 (0.9-1.3) 1.1 (0.7-1.6) 0.9 (0.6-1.4)
  Poorest quartile (≥7) 221 (69; 25) 1.2 (0.9-1.5) 1.0 (0.7-1.2) 1.5 (1.0-2.3) 1.1 (0.7--1.8)
Cooper's test (12-minute running test) Excellent (≥3000 m) Good (≥2600 m) 36 (67; 13) 214 (62; 13) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent)
  Fair good (≥2200 m) 435 (69; 20) 1.2 (1.0-1.5) 1.2 (0.9-1.5) 1.5 (1.0-2.2) 1.6 (1.0-2.7)
  Poor (<2200 m) 240 (76; 28) 1.7 (1.4-2.1) 1.6 (1.2-2.2) 2.3 (1.5-3.5) 2.5 (1.4-4.5)
Pull-up test (consecutive repeats without time limit) Excellent (≥14) 107 (65; 14) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent)
  Good (≥10) 140 (66; 16) 1.0 (0.7-1.4) 0.8 (0.5-1.1) 1.2 (0.6-2.2) 0.8 (0.4-1.8)
  Fair good (≥6) 266 (70; 18) 1.2 (0.9-1.5) 0.8 (0.6-1.2) 1.3 (0.7-2.3) 1.0 (0.5-1.9)
  Poor (<6) 421 (71; 25) 1.3 (1.0-1.7) 0.8 (0.6-1.2) 2.0 (1.2-3.4) 1.1 (0.6--2.2)
Standing long jump test (two attempts, best result) Excellent (≥2,40 m) 141 (62; 13) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent)
  Good (≥2,20 m) 251 (69; 20) 1.3 (1.0-1.7) 1.2 (0.9-1.6) 1.6 (0.9-2.7) 1.1 (0.6-1.9)
  Fair good (≥2,00 m) 311 (69; 20) 1.3 (1.0-1.7) 1.2 (0.9-1.6) 1.6 (1.0-2.7) 1.0 (0.6-1.8)
  Poor (<2,00 m) 231 (74; 26) 1.6 (1.2-2.0) 1.4 (1.0-1.9) 2.3 (1.4-3.8) 1.4 (0.7-2.6)
Sit-up test (repeats per 60 seconds) Excellent (≥48) 122 (64; 16) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent)
  Good (≥40) 221 (71; 17) 1.2 (0.9-1.6) 1.0 (0.8-1.4) 1.0 (0.6-1.8) 0.8 (0.4-1.5)
  Fair good (≥32) 328 (70; 22) 1.3 (1.0-1.7) 1.0 (0.7-1.3) 1.4 (0.9-2.3) 0.8 (0.5-1.5)
  Poor (<32) 263 (70; 24) 1.4 (1.0-1.8) 0.9 (0.7-1.3) 1.6 (1.0-2.6) 0.7 (0.4-1.4)
Push-up test (repeats per 60 seconds) Excellent (≥38) 283 (70; 18) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent)
  Good (≥30) 216 (64; 16) 1.0 (0.8-1.2) 0.8 (0.7-1.1) 0.9 (0.6-1.4) 0.7 (0.4-1.1)
  Fair good (≥22) 263 (68; 21) 1.0 (0.9-1.3) 0.8 (0.6-1.0) 1.2 (0.8-1.8) 0.7 (0.4-1.1)
  Poor (<22) 172 (76; 30) 1.4 (1.1-1.8) 1.0 (0.7-1.3) 2.0 (1.4-3.0) 1.0 (0.6-1.8)
Back lift test (repeats per 60 seconds) Excellent (≥60) 450 (65; 18) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent)
  Good (≥50) 195 (68; 20) 1.1 (0.9-1.4) 1.0 (0.8-1.3) 1.1 (0.8-1.6) 0.9 (0.6-1.4)
  Fair good (≥40) 197 (73; 20) 1.2 (1.0-1.5) 1.1 (0.9-1.4) 1.2 (0.8-1.7) 0.8 (0.5-1.3)
  Poor (<40) 92 (83; 32) 1.8 (1.4-2.3) 1.5 (1.1-2.0) 2.0 (1.3-3.1) 1.2 (0.7-2.0)
Conscript's muscle fitness index1 Excellent (13-15 points) 94 (61; 12) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent)
  Good (9-12 points) 249 (66; 17) 1.3 (0.9-1.7) 1.2 (0.8-1.6) 1.5 (0.8-2.9) 1.2 (0.5-2.5)
  Fair good (5-8 points) 336 (72; 22) 1.5 (1.1-2.0) 1.2 (0.9-1.8) 2.0 (1.1-3.8) 1.2 (0.5-2.5)
  Poor (0-4 points) 255 (71; 25) 1.6 (1.2-2.2) 1.1 (0.8-1.7) 2.6 (1.3-4.8) 1.1 (0.5-2.7)
Conscript's physical fitness index2 Excellent (≥21,00) 37 (59; 8) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent)
  Good (17.00-20.99) 270 (66; 16) 1.3 (0.8-2.0) 0.9 (0-6-1.4) 2.1 (0.6-6.6) 1.1 (0.3-3.7)
  Fair good (13.00-16.99) 420 (69; 21) 1.5 (1.0-2.4) 1.0 (0.6-1.6) 2.8 (0.9-9.0) 1.2 (0.3-4.1)
  Poor (<13.00) 196 (77; 28) 2.0 (1.3-3.2) 1.2 (0.7-2.0) 4.4 (1.4-14.0) 1.6 (0.4-5.8)
Combination of Cooper's and standing long jump test Excellent3 77 (58; 9) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent)
  Good4 335 (65; 19) 1.3 (0.9-1.8) 1.1 (0.8-1.6) 2.2 (1.0-4.9) 1.5 (0.6-3.3)
  Fair good5 394 (72; 20) 1.6 (1.2-2.2) 1.5 (1.0-2.1) 2.5 (1.2-5.4) 1.8 (0.8-4.1)
  Poor6 117 (79; 33) 2.1 (1.5-3.0) 1.6 (1.0-2.6) 4.8 (2.2-10.8) 3.0 (1.2-7.8)
Combination of Cooper's and push-up test Excellent3 135 (64; 13) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent)
  Good4 361 (67; 17) 1.2 (0.9-1.5) 1.1 (0.8-1.4) 1.3 (0.8-2.2) 1.3 (0.7-2.4)
  Fair good5 336 (70; 23) 1.3 (1.0-1.7) 1.0 (0.7-1.4) 1.9 (1.1-3.1) 1.4 (0.7-2.8)
  Poor6 91 (82; 36) 2.3 (1.7-3.1) 1.8 (1.2-2.8) 3.6 (2.0-6.5) 2.8 (1.2-6.2)
Combination of Cooper's and back lift test Excellent3 171 (60; 12) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent)
  Good4 437 (68; 20) 1.3 (1.0-1.6) 1.3 (1.0-1.7) 1.8 (1.1-2.9) 1.7 (1.0-3.0)
  Fair good5 272 (74; 22) 1.5 (1.2-2.0) 1.4 (1.0-1.9) 2.0 (1.2-3.3) 1.5 (0.8-2.8)
  Poor6 43 (91; 42) 3.6 (2.5-5.2) 2.9 (1.9-4.6) 5.0 (2.6-9.3) 2.7 (1.2-5.9)
  1. Variable distribution was charted in 944 male conscripts during the first two weeks of military service and MSD outcomes were registered during the following six-month military service. Long-term MSD was defined as an incidence of time loss of at least 10 active service days due to one or several MSDs. Statistically significant findings are indicated with bold type.
  2. * Adjusted for age (univariate).
  3. ** Adjusted for age, company, smoking, frequency of drunkenness before military service, baseline medical conditions (sports injury during the last month before military entry, chronic impairment or disability due to prior musculoskeletal injury, earlier musculoskeletal symptoms, chronic disease), school success (educational level and grades combined), father's occupation, opinion about physical demands for a soldier, urbanisation level of the place of residence, self-assessed health, waist circumference, height, participating in individual aerobic sports, last degree achieved in school sports, belonging to a sports club, self-assessed physical fitness, participation in competitive sports and physical activity during the previous three months before entering the military.
  4. 1 Muscle fitness index (MFI) is the sum of individual muscle fitness test results including push-up, sit-up, pull-up, standing long jump and back muscle tests.
  5. 2 Conscript's physical fitness index (CPFI) = (12 min running test result (m) + 100 × MFI)/200.
  6. 3 Excellent or good result in Cooper's test and excellent result in standing long jump/push-up/back lift tests.
  7. 4 Excellent result in standing long jump/push-up/back lift test and fair good or poor result in Cooper's test, or excellent result in Cooper's test and good, fair good, or poor result in standing long jump standing long jump/push-up/back lift test, or good result in Cooper's test and good or fair good result in standing long jump/push-up/back lift test, or fair good result in Cooper's test and good result in standing long jump test.
  8. 5 Poorer results than aforementioned, except the combination of poor results in both tests.
  9. 6 Poor result in Cooper's test and poor result in standing long jump/push-up/back lift tests.