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Table 5 Hazard ratios (HR) for musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) incidence and incidence of long-term MSD by health behaviour variables at baseline.

From: Aetiology and risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders in physically active conscripts: a follow-up study in the Finnish Defence Forces

Health behaviour Category Total number (% of experienced MSD;% of experienced ≥10 service days lost due to MSDs) HR for MSD incidence (n = 652) * HR for MSD incidence (n = 652) ** HR for long-term MSD incidence (≥10 service days lost) (n = 194) * HR for long-term MSD incidence (≥10 service days lost) (n = 194) **
Smoking habits Never smoked regularly 492 (62; 14) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent)
  Has smoked regularly 439 (76; 28) 1.5 (1.2-1.7) 1.1 (0.9-1.3) 2.1 (1.6-2.9) 1.5 (1.0-2.1)
Use of alcohol <1 time per month 176 (57; 14) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent)
  1-2 times per week 603 (70; 21) 1.3 (1.0-1.6) 1.2 (0.9-1.5) 1.5 (1.0-2.2) 1.3 (0.8-2.1)
  ≥3 times per week 154 (78; 25) 1.7 (1.3-2.2) 1.3 (1.0-1.9) 1.8 (1.1-3.0) 1.0 (0.5-1.9)
Frequency of drunkenness before military service <1 time per week 723 (66; 19) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent)
  ≥1 time per week 211 (77; 27) 1.4 (1.2-1.7) 1.3 (1.1-1.6) 1.6 (1.2-2.2) 1.3 (0.9-1.8)
Agrees that soldier needs good physical fitness Yes 598 (67; 19) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent)
  No 336 (71; 23) 1.1 (1.0-1.3) 1.0 (0.8-1.2) 1.2 (0.9-1.6) 1.0 (0.7-1.3)
Sweating exercise (Brisk leisure time sport) ≥3 times per week 287 (62; 13) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent)
  1-2 times per week 282 (72; 21) 1.3 (1.1-1.6) 1.2 (0.9-1.5) 1.7 (1.1-2.5) 1.2 (0.7-2.0)
  Only leisured exercise 183 (69; 24) 1.4 (1.1-1.8) 1.2 (0.9-1.6) 2.1 (1.4-3.2) 1.4 (0.8-2.3)
  No physical exercise 182 (75; 29) 1.6 (1.3-2.0) 1.2 (0.9-1.6) 2.5 (1.7-3.9) 1.3 (0.7-2.3)
Participates in individual aerobic sports Yes, at least sometimes 638 (67; 18) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent)
  No 293 (73; 26) 1.2 (1.0-1.5) 1.1 (0.9-1.3) 1.6 (1.2-2.1) 1.3 (0.9-1.8)
Belongs to a sports club Yes, an active member 148 (64; 10) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent)
  No 782 (70; 23) 1.3 (1.0-1.6) 1.5 (1.1-2.0) 2.6 (1.5-4.4) 2.9 (1.4-5.8)
Participates in competitive sports Yes 138 (71; 16) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent)
  No 794 (68; 21) 1.0 (0.8-1.2) 0.7 (0.5-0.9) 1.5 (0.9-2.3) 0.6 (0.3-1.1)
Last degree achieved in school sports Very good or excellent 436 (67; 19) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent)
  Good 301 (66; 20) 1.0 (0.9-1.2) 1.0 (0.8-1.2) 1.1 (0.8-1.5) 1.0 (0.7-1.4)
  Poor or fair 196 (76; 27) 1.3 (1.1-1.6) 1.0 (0.8-1.2) 1.6 (1.1-2.3) 0.8 (0.5-1.3)
Self-assessed physical fitness 1 Good or very good 217 (65; 14) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent)
  Average or inferior 717 (70; 23) 1.3 (1.1-1.6) 1.0 (0.8-1.2) 1.8 (1.2-2.6) 1.1 (0.7-1.8)
  1. Variable distribution was charted in 944 male conscripts during the first week of military service and MSD outcomes were registered during the following six-month military service. Long-term MSD was defined as an incidence of time loss of at least 10 active service days due to one or several MSDs. Statistically significant findings are indicated with bold type.
  2. * Adjusted for age (univariate).
  3. ** Adjusted for age, company, smoking, frequency of drunkenness before military service, baseline medical conditions (sports injury during the last month before military entry, chronic impairment or disability due to prior musculoskeletal injury, earlier musculoskeletal symptoms, chronic disease), school success (educational level and grades combined), father's occupation, opinion about physical demands for a soldier, urbanisation level of the place of residence, self-assessed health, waist circumference, height, participating in individual aerobic sports, last degree achieved in school sports, belonging to a sports club, self-assessed physical fitness, participation in competitive sports and physical activity during the previous three months before entering the military.
  4. 1 Compared to age-mates.