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Table 4 Hazard ratios (HR) for musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) incidence and incidence of long-term MSD by socio-economic variables and company at baseline.

From: Aetiology and risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders in physically active conscripts: a follow-up study in the Finnish Defence Forces

Socioeconomic background & company Category Total number (% of experienced MSD;% of experienced ≥10 service days lost due to MSDs) HR for MSD incidence (n = 652) * HR for MSD incidence (n = 652) ** HR for long-term MSD incidence (≥10 service days lost) (n = 194) * HR for long-term MSD incidence (≥10 service days lost) (n = 194) **
Father's occupational group Not physical 325 (64; 20) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent)
  Physical 416 (70; 20) 1.2 (1.0-1.4) 1.1 (0.9-1.4) 1.0 (0.7-1.4) 0.9 (0.6-1.3)
  Unclear or unemployed 185 (74; 24) 1.3 (1.0-1.6) 1.3 (1.1-1.7) 1.2 (0.8-1.7) 1.1 (0.7-1.7)
School success (combination of school type attended and school success) Excellent1 138 (52; 12) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent)
  Good2 410 (70; 18) 1.7 (1.3-2.2) 1.4 (1.1-1.9) 1.6 (0.9-2.7) 1.1 (0.6-1.9)
  Satisfactory3 319 (72; 24) 1.9 (1.5-2.5) 1.5 (1.1-2.0) 2.3 (1.3-3.8) 1.3 (0.7-2.4)
  Poor4 67 (81; 37) 2.7 (1.9-3.9) 2.0 (1.3-3.0) 4.2 (2.2-7.7) 2.2 (1.1-4.5)
Urbanisation level of the place of residence ≥10000 inhabitants 552 (70; 20) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent)
  <10000 inhabitants 382 (66; 21) 1.0 (0.8-1.1) 0.9 (0.8-1.1) 1.1 (0.8-1.4) 1.0 (0.7-1.4)
Age 18-19 years 723 (68; 20) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent)
  20-28 years 221 (71; 23) 1.1 (0.9-1.3) 1.1 (0.9-1.3) 1.2 (0.9-1.6) 1.2 (0.8-1.7)
Company Anti-tank company 249 (61; 16) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent) 1 (Referent)
  Signal company 234 (66; 16) 1.2 (1.0-1.5) 1.3 (1.0-1.6) 1.0 (0.7-1.6) 1.1 (0.7-1.8)
  Mortar company 69 (61; 9) 1.0 (0.7-1.4) 1.2 (0.8-1.7) 0.5 (0.2-1.2) 0.8 (0.3-1.9)
  Engineer company 215 (76; 24) 1.5 (1.2-1.8) 1.5 (1.2-2.0) 1.6 (1.0-2.3) 1.5 (0.9-2.4)
  Infantry company 100 (86; 36) 2.1 (1.6-2.8) 1.9 (1.4-2.6) 2.6 (1.7-4.1) 2.6 (1.6-4.3)
  Logistic company 61 (77; 34) 1.7 (1.2-2.4) 1.7 (1.2-2.4) 2.4 (1.4-4.1) 2.2 (1.2-3.9)
  Other companies5 16 (50; 0) 0.8 (0.4-1.7) 1.0 (0.5-2.1) 0.0 (0.0-∞) 0.0 (0.0-∞)
  1. Variable distribution was charted in 944 male conscripts during the first week of military service and MSD outcomes were registered during the following six-month military service. Long-term MSD was defined as an incidence of time loss of at least 10 active service days due to one or several MSDs. Statistically significant findings are indicated with bold type.
  2. * Adjusted for age (univariate).
  3. ** Adjusted for age, company, smoking, frequency of drunkenness before military service, baseline medical conditions (sports injury during the last month before military entry, chronic impairment or disability due to prior musculoskeletal injury, earlier musculoskeletal symptoms, chronic disease), school success (educational level and grades combined), father's occupation, opinion about physical demands for a soldier, urbanisation level of the place of residence, self-assessed health, waist circumference, height, participating in individual aerobic sports, last degree achieved in school sports, belonging to a sports club, self-assessed physical fitness, participation in competitive sports and physical activity during the previous three months before entering the military.
  4. 1 Attended upper secondary school, polytechnic or university and reported excellent or good grades.
  5. 2 Other subjects from upper secondary school, polytechnic or university and conscripts from vocational school whose grades were excellent or good.
  6. 3 Respondents with poorer grades in vocational school.
  7. 4 Attended only comprehensive school or had permanently interrupted vocational or upper elementary school.
  8. 5 Conscripts were moved to different brigades.