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Table 2 CNS syndromes of SLE patients (n = 191)

From: Diagnostic reliability of magnetic resonance imaging for central nervous system syndromes in systemic lupus erythematosus: a prospective cohort study

Manifestaions of CNS lupus* n % MRI positive†
Total 57 30 25 (44%)
Neurologic disorders 34 18 17 (50%)
   Aseptic meningitis 5 3 1 (20%)
   Cerebrovascular disease 1 1 1 (100%)
   Demyelinating syndrome 5 3 4 (80%)
   Headache‡ 5 3 4 (80%)
   Movement disorder (chorea) 0 0  
   Myelopathy 2 1 1 (50%)
   Seizures and seizure disorders 18 9 8 (44%)
Psychiatric disorders 36 19 16 (44%)
   Acute confusional state 24 13 14 (58%)
   Anxiety disorder 1 1 0 (0%)
   Cognitive dysfunction§ 0 0  
   Mood disorders 9 5 2 (22%)
   Psychosis 2 1 0 (0%)
  1. * Based on American College of Rheumatology case definitions for neuropsychiatric ayndromes in SLE
  2. †An MRI test was defined to be 'positive' when any abnormal intensity lesion was found.
  3. ‡Excluding tension headache (episodic tension-type headache).
  4. §Excluding slight or mild cognitive dysfunction without significant clinical impairment as revealed by detailed neuropsychological tests.
  5. SLE: systemic lupus erythematosus; CNS: central nervous system