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Table 2 Drugs used to manage neurophatic pain and their mode of action.

From: Malformations of the craniocervical junction (chiari type I and syringomyelia: classification, diagnosis and treatment)

Type Mode of action Drug Side effect
Anticonvulsants Inhibits opening neuronal voltage –dependent channels (calcium channels, sodium channel ) andGABA receptor. Carbamazepine
Gabapentin
Pregabalin
Topiramate
Hepatotoxicity, drowsiness, fatigue, ataxia, vertigo, gastrointestinal discomfort headache, blurred vision.
Antidepressants Inhibits the re-uptake of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and serotonin by neurons. Amitriptyline
Duloxetine
Venlafaxine
Mouth dryness, intense sedation, fatigue, diminished libido, weight loss, nausea, insomnia, headache.
Local anaesthetics Act mainly by inhibiting sodium influx through sodium-specific ion channels in the neuronal cell membrane. Lidocaine
Mexiletine
Dizzine, arrhythmia.
Analgesics Act through specific receptors, particularly μ receptors distributed throughout the central and peripheral nervous system blocking them. Tramadol
Dextropropoxyphene
Buprenorphine
Morphine
Oxycodone
Fentanyl
Methadone
Nausea, vomiting, sweating, dizzines, mouth dryness, sedation, vertigo.