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Table 7 Ongoing pain: Markov transition models – analyses of a period of pain at one-year follow-up, for those with a period of pain at baseline.

From: Analyzing musculoskeletal neck pain, measured as present pain and periods of pain, with three different regression models: a cohort study

Explanatory variables from baseline Exposed cases Simple model Adjusted model Proportion ratio
   Odds ratio P-value Odds ratio P-value 95% CI  
Women/men 106 1.9 0.027 1.6 0.157 0.837; 3.01 1.4
Overweight 14 0.87 0.848     0.96
Breakfast regularly 114 1.5 0.202     1.2
Snuff use 4 - -     -
Smoking 12 1.4 0.231     1.1
Physical activity   0.98 0.684     0.99
High work/study demands (ref: not too high) 64   0.606     
   Not affecting home life 40 1.2      1.1
   Affecting home life 32 1.3      1.2
High home life demands 5 - -     
Work/study time   0.98 0.095 0.98 0.093 0.962; 1.00 0.99
Good relationship with superiors 126 0.49 0.206     0.73
Good relationship with colleagues 129 1.4 0.545     1.2
Computer use pattern (ref: 0) 81   0.568     
   One 4 h period without a break 18 0.98      0.99
   At least two 4 h periods without a break 37 0.75      0.86
Asthma 17 1.8 0.198 1.9 0.205 0.708; 5.00 1.3
Perceived stress 108 1.9 0.029 1.8 0.064 0.965; 3.50 1.4
  1. All odds ratios are adjusted for gender (using men as the reference category). For the adjusted odds ratios both p-values and 95% confidence intervals (CI) are presented. The total number of respondents varied between N = 214–264, because of incomplete data. Estimates were not calculated for explanatory variables with fewer than five exposed cases.