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Table 6 Developing pain: Markov transition models – analyses of a period of pain at one-year follow-up, for those without a period of pain at baseline.

From: Analyzing musculoskeletal neck pain, measured as present pain and periods of pain, with three different regression models: a cohort study

Explanatory variables from baseline Exposed cases Simple model Adjusted model Proportion ratio
   Odds ratio P-value Odds ratio P-value 95% CI  
Women/men 86 3.0 < 0.001 3.1 < 0.0001 2.00; 4.82 2.5
Overweight 10 0.80 0.522     0.82
Breakfast regularly 103 0.81 0.423     0.84
Snuff use 5 - -     -
Smoking 7 1.2 0.685     1.1
Physical activity   0.99 0.599     0.99
High work/study demands (ref: not too high) 62   0.126   0.296   
   Not affecting home life 48 1.4   1.4   0.913; 2.20 1.4
   Affecting home life 16 1.5   1.1   0.596; 2.12 1.3
High home life demands 8 2.2 0.063 2.2 0.080 0.912; 5.07 1.9
Work/study time   1.0 0.889     1.0
Good relationship with superiors 116 0.67 0.280     0.72
Good relationship with colleagues 114 0.56 0.098 0.72 0.373 0.354; 1.48 0.62
Computer use pattern
(ref: 0)
64   0.016   0.021   
   One 4 h period without a break 20 1.6   1.7   0.941; 2.94 1.5
   At least two 4 h periods without a break 42 1.9   1.8   1.16; 2.89 1.7
Asthma 13 2.0 0.046 2.0 0.052 0.996; 3.91 1.7
Perceived stress 84 1.9 0.002 1.7 0.011 1.13; 2.63 1.7
  1. All odds ratios are adjusted for gender (using men as the reference category). For the adjusted odds ratios both p-values and 95% confidence intervals (CI) are presented. The total number of respondents varied between N = 267 – 326, because of incomplete data. Estimates were not calculated for explanatory variables with five or fewer exposed cases.