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Table 1 Definition of the three outcome variables.

From: Analyzing musculoskeletal neck pain, measured as present pain and periods of pain, with three different regression models: a cohort study

Outcome variable Definition Possible values
Pain at present "Do you at present have pain in the upper part of your back/neck?"
Y = 1 if the participants answered yes to the question
Y = 0 otherwise
0, 1
A period of pain "Have you, during the last year, had a period of pain lasting more than 7 days in the upper part of your back/neck?"
Y = 1 if the participants answered yes to the question
Y = 0 otherwise
0, 1
Number of years with pain Y = sum of 'a period of pain' over three years (baseline, one-year and two-year follow-ups) 0, 1, 2, 3