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Table 1 Overall results

From: Direction of the formation of anterior lumbar vertebral osteophytes

  L1–2 L2–3 L3–4 L4–5 L5-S1
Group A 873 (29.4%) 641 (22.5%) 417 (14.6%) 568 (19.9%) 550 (19.3%)
Group B 916 (32.1%) 638 (22.4%) 501 (17.6%) 336 (11.8%) 279 (9.8%)
Group C 371 (13.0%) 412 (14.4%) 229 (8.0%) 152 (5.3%) 108 (3.8%)
Group D 193 (6.8%) 265 (9.3%) 915 (32.1%) 1284 (45.1%) 1037 (36.4%)
Group E 398 (14.0%) 761 (26.7%) 684 (24.0%) 439 (15.4%) 778 (27.3%)
Group F 135 (4.7%) 133 (4.7%) 104 (3.7%) 71 (2.5%) 98 (3.4%)
  1. Group A: no osteophytes
  2. Group B: the pair of osteophytes extended in the direction of the adjacent disc
  3. Group C: almost complete bone bridge formation by a pair of osteophytes across the intervertebral disc space
  4. Group D: the pair of osteophytes extended in a direction away from the adjacent disc
  5. Group E: the osteophytes extended nearly horizontally to the vertebral body border without closing the intervertebral disc space
  6. Group F: ungroupable