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Table 1 Demographic and baseline characteristics (N = 170)

From: Cross-sectional analysis of baseline differences of candidates for rotator cuff surgery: a sex and gender perspective

Variables Women(%) Men(%) Statistics P values
Age (Mean, SD) 59.00 (11.07) 54.85(10.47) t value: 2.51
p = 0.013
Range 36–87 32–78 ES:0.39 (0.08–0.69)
BMI    
   • Normal < 25 22 (26%) 11 (13%) χ 2 : 9.027
   • Overweight (25.0–29.99) 26 (30%) 44 (52%) P = 0.011
   • Obese (≥ 30.0) 37 (44%) 30 (35%)  
Comorbidity (Mean, SD) 3.34 (2.82) 2.61 (2.54) t value: 1.78
p = 0.0764
Smoking    
   • Yes 9 (11%) 16 (19%) χ2: 2.29
   • No 76(89%) 69 (81%) p = 0.1295
Hand Dominance    
   • Right 78 (92%) 77 (91%) Exact Fisher's: 0.10
   • Left 7 (8%) 7 (8%) p = 1.00
   • Bilateral None 1 (1%)  
Affected Side    
   • Right 48 (57%) 42 (49%) χ2: 4.90
   • Left 14 (16%) 26 (31%) p = 0.086
   • Bilateral 23 (27%) 17 (20%)  
Side operated on    
   • Right 61 (72%) 50 (59%) χ2: 3.14
   • Left 24 (41%) 35 (41%) p = 0.076
Symptom duration in months (Mean, SD) 45.06(71) 47.98 (60) t value: -0.29
p = 0.77
Symptoms characteristics    
   • Pain on movement 66 (78%) 67(79%) χ2: 0.0345, p = 0.85
   • Night pain 59 (69%) 51(60%) χ2: 0.0, p = 1.00
   • Weakness 57 (67%) 56 (66%) χ2: 0.0, p = 1.00
   • Catching/Clicking/Grinding 40 (47%) 40 (47%) χ2: 0.0, p = 1.00
Extent of bony pathology    
   • AC joint arthritis 55(65%) 67(74%) χ 2 : 4.18, p = 0.04
   • GH Arthritis 22(26%) 23(27%) χ2: 0.05, p = 0.81
   • Superior migration of humeral head    
   • Subacromial Spurs 22(26%) 23(27%) χ2: 0.03, p = 0.86
   • Calcified Tendinitis 77(91%) 78(92%) χ2: 0.7, p = 0.87
   • Osteolysis of end of clavicle 5(6%) 6(7%) χ2: 0.09, p = 0.76
   • Osacromiale 0(0%) 3(4%) Fisher's test: 0.12, p = 0.24
  1(1%) 1(1%) Fisher's test: 0.50, p = 1.00
Mechanism of injury    
   • Insidious 29 (34%) 23(27%) χ2: 0.99, p = 0.31
   • Repetitive activities 14(17%) 13 (15%) χ2: 0.44, p = 0.83
   • Fall 15 (18%) 10 (12%) χ2: 1.172, p = 0.28
   • Traumatic 10 (12%) 21 (25%) χ 2 : 4.77, p = 0.03
Work Status (active work-related claim related to shoulder): 36/170 20(24%) 16(19%) χ2: 0.56, p = 0.45
Type of surgery    
   • Rotator Cuff repair 44 (52%) 50 (59%) χ2: 0.85, p = 0.35
   • Resection of lateral Clavicle 49(58%) 63 (74%) χ 2 : 5.13, p = 0.02
   • Acromioplasty 77 (91%) 84 (99%) Exact Fisher's: 0.015
p = 0.03
Size of full-thickness tear    
   • Small 2 (2%) 2 (2%) Exact Fisher's: 0.65
   • Moderate 31 (33%) 36 (38%) p = 0.86
   • Large 12 (13%) 11 (12%)  
Medication taken    
   • Yes 32 (39%) 41(47%) χ2: 1.94, p = 0.16
   • No 53 (61%) 44(52%)  
Participation limitation    
   • Low 31 (36%) 45 (53%)  
   • Moderate 18 (21%) 25 (29%) χ 2 : 12.36, p = 0.002
   • High 36(42%) 15(18%)  
Strength (Mean, SD)
(Elevation in scapular plane, lb)
   
   • Affected side 2.89(2.89) 7.01 (4.76) -6.03 p < 0.0001
   • Opposite side 7.81(3.28) 13.31(5.49) -7.06 p < 0.0001
Range of motion (Mean, SD)    
Active flexion (0/180) 119 (42) 139 (39) -3.23 0.001
Passive flexion (0/180) 149 (29) 156 (25) -1.43 0.1528
Active abduction (0/180) 106 (47) 128 (43) -2.91 0.002
Passive abduction (0/180) 138 (37) 147 (30) -1.36 0.17
Active external rotation (0/90) 46(19) 54(35) -1.11 0.270
Passive external rotation (0/90) 56(19) 71(25) 0.977 0.329
Combined painfree range of motion (0/40)    
(Mean, SD)    
Flexion: 10    
Abduction: 10 19.07 (9.61) 23.08 (9.92) -2.65 0.009
External Rotation: 10    
Internal Rotation: 10    
  1. AC: Acromioclavicular
  2. BMI: Body Mass Index
  3. GH: Glenohumeral
  4. SD: Standard Deviation
  5. χ2:Chi-Square