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Table 1 Categorical risk factors for LBP lasting seven or more consecutive days after one year of follow-up (LBP at t1) in univariate analyses.

From: Physical characteristics of the back are not predictive of low back pain in healthy workers: A prospective study

   Asymptomatic workers   Mildly symptomatic workers
    LBP at t1     LBP at t1   
   n % RR 95%CI P-value n % RR 95%CI P-value
Current LPB (reported before the physical examination) No 354 9.6 / / / 331 14.8 1.00   0.013
  Yes / /     4 75.0 5.07 (2.72 – 9.44)  
Iliac crest height inequality ≥ 1.5 cm No 336 9.5 1.00   0.673 320 15.6 1.00   0.700
  Yes 17 11.8 1.23 (0.32 – 4.74)   12 8.3 0.53 (0.08 – 3.54)  
Scoliosis No 299 10.0 1.00   0.523 289 16.3 1.00   0.375
  Yes 55 7.3 0.72 (0.27 – 1.98)   45 11.1 0.68 (0.29 – 1.63)  
Lumbar flexion: Pain in the low back or buttock No 343 9.6 / / 1.000 330 15.5 1.00   0.400
  Yes 8 0.0     3 33.3 2.16 (0.43 – 10.90)  
Lumbar extension: Pain in the low back No 333 9.6 / / 0.608 305 13.4 1.00   0.008
  Yes 10 0.0     26 34.6 2.58 (1.41 – 4.69)  
Pain in the low back or buttock in lateral flexion No 349 9.7 / / 1.000 325 14.5 1.00   0.010
  Yes 2 0.0     10 50.0 3.46 (1.76 – 6.80)  
Pain in the low back or buttock-thigh or knee- other places in SLR No 99 9.1 1.00   0.838 118 16.9 1.00   0.595
  Yes 255 9.8 1.08 (0.52 – 2.23)   217 14.7 0.87 (0.52 – 1.45)  
Neurological examination of the lower limbs Normal 345 9.3 1.00   0.548 327 15.6 1.00   1.000
  Abnormal 8 12.5 1.35 (0.21 – 8.70)   8 12.5 0.80 (0.13 – 5.10)  
Body mass index (kg/m2) Normal 233 8.6 1.00   0.026 235 14.5 1.00   0.359
  Overweight 65 6.2 0.72 (0.25 – 2.02)   64 21.9 1.51 (0.87 – 2.64)  
  (≥ 25 and <30)           
  Obese (>30) 31 22.6 2.63 (1.21 – 5.71)   18 16.7 1.15 (0.39 – 3.39)  
  1. P value calculated with Chi-square or Fisher-Exact tests/RR = relative risk/95%CI = 95% confidence interval