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Table 2 Cognitive deficit in Fibromyalgia patients compared with subjects with neuropathic pain or mixed pain. Comparisons are overall, by level of symptoms of anxiety and depression, and by severity of present pain.

From: Cognitive impairment in patients with Fibromyalgia syndrome as assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination

  FMS (n = 46) NeP (n = 92) MP (n = 92) P
MMSE scoring (Range 0-30); mean (95% CI) 26.9 (26.7-27.1) 27.3 (27.2-27.4) 27.3 (27.2-27.5) 0.001 (F = 7.32; df = 229)
% patients with cognitive deficit (MMSE < 26); n, (%) [95% CI] 7 (15%) [6.3-29] 5 (5%) [1.8-12.2] 5 (5%) [1.8-12.2] 0.076 (X2 = 5.146; df = 2)
% patients with cognitive deficit by Presence of symptoms of     
   Anxiety (COVI ≥ 9) 7/14 (50%) [23-77] 5/17 (29%) [10.3-56] 5/15 (33%) [11.8-61.6] 0.467 (X2 = 1.522; df = 2)
   Depression (RASKIN ≥ 9) 7/19 (37%) [16.3-61.6] 5/20 (25%) [8.6-49.1] 5/21 (24%) [8.2-47.2] 0.607 (X2 = 0.999; df = 2)
Intensity of pain (average last week)     
   Mild (< 40) 1/2 (50%) [12.6-98.7] 1/7 (14%) [0.4-57.9] 0-3 (0%) [0-70.8] 0.328 (X2 = 2.229; df = 2)
   Moderate (≥40<70) 2/15 (13%) [1.6-40.5] 2/26 (8%) [0.9-25.1] 1/26 (4%) [0-19.6] 0.537 (X2 = 1.243; df = 2)
   Severe (≥ 70) 4/29 (14%) [3.9-31.7] 2/59 (3%) [0.4-11.7] 4/63 (6%) [1.8-15.5] 0.177 (X2 = 3.464; df = 2)
  1. FMS = Fibromyalgia Syndrome; NeP = Neurophatic Pain; MP = Mixed Pain; MMSE scoring adjusted by age, sex and schooling. Cognitive deficit: MMSE ≤ 26 pts after adjusting by age, sex, schooling, present intensity of pain (PPI item) and severity of symptoms of anxiety (COVI) and depression (RASKIN). CI = Confidence interval; F = F statistic (ANOVA); df = degree of freedom. X2 = Chi2 test.