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Table 2 Joint angles and moments when the lumbar lordosis appears during lifting (Kruskal Wallis)

From: Lower extremity joint kinetics and lumbar curvature during squat and stoop lifting

Mean (SD) Squat lifting Stoop lifting
   5 kg 10 kg 15 kg 5 kg 10 kg 15 kg
Joint angles (deg) Lumbar joint 31.32(3.41) 31.14(4.05) 28.01(3.71) 28.19(1.96)* 25.96(2.14)* 24.79(4.53)*
  Hip joint 18.23(22.16) 13.55(20.55) 5.67(15.49) -1.90(5.11) -1.89(6.23) -6.05(4.79)
  Knee joint 23.06(18.41)* 18.65(13.54)* 8.15(6.30)* -0.83(3.95) -1.18(2.81) -2.15(2.38)
  Ankle joint 10.28(6.71)* 7.32(4.71)* 2.80(2.28)* 1.25(2.58) 0.09(2.12) -0.25(2.93)
Joint moments (Nm/kg) Lumbar joint 0.89(0.33)* 1.17(0.33)* 1.19(0.21)* 0.60(0.09)* 0.85(0.12)* 0.97(0.09)*
  Hip joint 0.51(0.26) 0.62(0.28) 0.61(0.20) 0.32(0.07)* 0.42(0.10)* 0.46(0.11)*
  Knee joint -0.20(0.10) -0.36(0.14) -0.47(0.11) -0.38(0.13) -0.43(0.12) -0.48(0.11)
  Ankle joint 0.48(0.20) 0.57(0.20) 0.54(0.15) 0.42(0.17) 0.43(0.18) 0.45(0.24)
  1. *: There is significant difference in angle or moment with respect to the weight increase (p < .05)