Skip to main content

Table 2 Features of the VOAA-DDD beads and muffin tasks

From: Validity and reliability of the VOAA-DDD to assess spontaneous hand use with a video observation tool in children with spastic unilateral cerebral palsy

  Duration Scores Frequency scores
Objective To determine the percentage of spontaneous use of the affected arm and hand in a fixed time period To determine the occurrence of specific motor behaviours of the affected arm and hand during different subtasks
Time-related Yes No
Observed motor Use of the affected arm and hand Reaches
behaviour No use of the affected arm and hand Grasps*
   Holds*
   Releases*
   Puts back on place
   Stabilizes
   Shakes/pours
   Pushes/pulls/shoves/rubs
   Catches/carries
   Manipulates
Scores Duration beads:
total % of use of the affected arm and hand related to the time for completing the beads task
B-score: total of basic Grasps,
Holds and Releases observations during the tasks
   A-score: total of advanced Grasps, Holds and Releases observation during the beads task
   V-score: total of the following behaviours during both tasks:
  Duration muffin:
total % of use of the affected arm and hand related to the time for completing the muffin task
1. Stabilizes, 2. Reaches, 3. Puts back on place, 4. Shakes/pours, 5. Pushes/pulls/shoves/rubs, 6. Catches/carries, 7. Manipulates, 8. advanced Grasps, 9. advanced Holds and 10. advanced Releases
  1. * With regard to the behaviours Grasps, Holds, and Releases we used both a basic (B) and an advanced (A) description for the beads task; for the muffin task we used only a basic (B) score. Criteria are related to the quality of the performance; for all active behaviours a B-score is obtained, but for higher qualitative grasping, holding and releasing an A-score can be gained. E.g. all active releasing is a B-score, but releasing with wrist extension gives an A-score.