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Table 3 Regression models of predictors for non-return to work. Adjusted for all the other variables

From: Expectations, perceptions, and physiotherapy predict prolonged sick leave in subacute low back pain

Adjusted model   3 months (n = 176)   12 months (n = 173)   24 months (n = 175)  
   OR (95%CI) p- value OR (95%CI) p- value OR (95%CI) p- value
Group BI 1.0 (0.4-2.3) 0.96 1.1 (0.6-2.2) 0.77 1.3 (0.7-2.6) 0.45
  BI/PE 1 (ref.)   1 (ref.)   1 (ref.)  
Gender Male 1.2 (0.5-2.8) 0.75 0.9 (0.4-1.8) 0.74 0.6 (0.3-1.3) 0.20
  Female 1 (ref.)   1 (ref.)   1 (ref.)  
Age Under 41 years 1.4 (0.6-3.4) 0.42 1.7 (0.8-3.3) 0.16 2.9 (1.4-6.0) 0.003
  41 years or older 1 (ref.)   1 (ref.)   1 (ref.)  
Education Higher education 1.5 (0.5-4.5) 0.49 0.6 (0.2-1.5) 0.27 0.4 (0.2-1.1) 0.08
  No higher education 1 (ref.)   1 (ref.)   1 (ref.)  
Workload Constant back strain 4.2 (1.5-12) 0.006 2.1 (0.8-5.2) 0.11 1.2 (0.5-3.2) 0.65
  Seldom back strain 1 (ref.)   1 (ref.)   1 (ref.)  
Sleep problems Sleep problems due to pain 1.2 (0.4-3.4) 0.77 1.0 (0.4-2.4) 0.93 1.9 (0.7-5.2) 0.20
  No sleep problems 1 (ref.)   1 (ref.)   1 (ref.)  
Reduced ability to walk Reduced ability to walk due to pain 2.4 (0.8-7.0) 0.06 2.6 (1.3-5.4) 0.01 1.2 (0.6-2.5) 0.63
  Able to walk far 1 (ref.)   1 (ref.)   1 (ref.)  
Expectations of RTW Negative expectations 4.2 (1.7-10) 0.001 1.9 (0.9-4.0) 0.11 2.0 (0.9-4.3) 0.10
  Positive expectations 1 (ref.)   1 (ref.)   1 (ref.)  
Physiotherapy Had been to PT 3.3 (1.3-8.3) 0.01 2.1 (1.1-4.3) 0.048 0.8 (0.4-1.7) 0.56
  Had not been to PT 1 (ref.)   1 (ref.)   1 (ref.)  
Back pain intensity (1-10) > 7 back pain intensity 1.6 (0.5-4.5) 0.41 0.5 (0.2-1.2) 0.13 1.5 (0.7-3.2) 0.32
  < 7 pain intensity 1 (ref.)   1 (ref.)   1 (ref.)  
Pain during activity (1-9) > 6 pain intensity during activity 1.0 (0.4-2.6) 0.95 2.4 (1.1-5.1) 0.027 1.5 (0.7-3.2) 0.32
  < 6 pain intensity 1 (ref.)   1 (ref.)   1 (ref.)  
Pain during rest > 4 pain intensity during rest 5.6 (1.7-19) 0.005 1.8 (0.8-3.8) 0.15 1.5 (0.7-3.3) 0.28
  < 4 pain intensity 1 (ref.)   1 (ref.)   1 (ref.)  
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