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Table 2 Crude and adjusted associations between baseline characteristics and neck pain (NPAD-d)

From: Depression and anxiety as major determinants of neck pain: a cross-sectional study in general practice

  NPAD-da
  Crude linear regression model Adjusted linear regression modelb
Baseline characteristics regression
coefficient
95% confidence interval p-value regression
coefficient
95% confidence interval p-value
Socio-demographic variables       
Age 50 years or older 2.25 -1.22; 5.73 0.203 2.17 -2.11; 6.45 0.320
Female 1.48 -2.70; 5.67 0.486 4.07 -0.10; 8.10 0.051
Unemployed or retired 1.58 -2.00; 5.17 0.386 0.55 -3.46; 4.56 0.787
Basic education (< 10 years at school) 4.80 1.17; 8.43 0.010 2.38 -1.54; 6.30 0.233
Living without partner -3.87 -7.91; 0.17 0.060 -3.60 -7.57; 0.38 0.076
Living with ≤ 2 persons in the same household -2.12 -5.71; 1.46 0.245 -2.12 -5.97; 1.63 0.263
Psychosocial characteristics       
Depression (HADS Depression subscale, 0–21) 2.16 1.74; 2.57 <0.001 1.52 0.87; 2.16 <0.001
Anxiety (HADS Anxiety subscale, 0–21) 1.87 1.48; 2.25 <0.001 0.90 0.36; 1.42 0.001
Deficits in social support 5.19 1.56; 8.81 0.005 -0.40 -4.50; 3.69 0.847
Medical history       
Had injury of the cervical spine 1.95 -2.57; 6.47 0.397 2.06 -2.02; 6.13 0.321
Health-promoting lifestyle       
Exercises once or less per week 4.50 1.06; 7.94 0.011 0.95 -2.41; 4.31 0.579
  1. a NPAD-d: Neck Pain and Disability Scale German version
  2. b R-squared = 0,255