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Table 3 Multivariate analysis of overall predictors of Symptom Bothersomeness score

From: Characteristics of patients with chronic back pain who benefit from acupuncture

   Symptom Bothersomeness*
   8-week 52-week
Variable Categories β ** (SE) P-value β** (SE) P-value
Baseline Roland score Continuous 0.02 (0.03) 0.37 0.10 (0.03) 0.0004
Baseline bothersomeness score Continuous 0.25 (0.05) <.0001 0.17 (0.05) 0.001
Any disability Yes vs. No 0.27 (0.24) 0.26 -0.03 (0.25) 0.90
SF-36 Mental Health score Continuous -0.01 (0.01) 0.40 -0.01 (0.01) 0.26
Age Continuous -0.02 (0.01) 0.06 0.02 (0.01) 0.03
Gender Female vs. Male -0.14 (0.21) 0.50 0.05 (0.22) 0.81
Education level College graduate, Yes vs. No -0.04 (0.21) 0.87 -0.31 (0.22) 0.17
Employment Heavy lifting job vs. Unemployed 0.12 (0.35) 0.01 -0.94 (0.37) 0.10
  Light/Medium lifting job vs. Unemployed -0.36 (0.29)   -0.54 (0.31)  
  Sedentary job vs. Unemployed -0.86 (0.30)   -0.67 (0.32)  
  Employment unknown vs. Unemployed -1.11 (0.94)   -1.37 (0.97)  
Medication use Narcotics vs. None -0.10 (0.35) 0.22 0.21 (0.37) 0.005
  Other vs. None -0.37 (0.22)   -0.63 (0.23)  
Self-efficacy High vs. Low 0.07 (0.47) 0.87 -1.04 (0.51) 0.04
Expectation of acup. help Top tertile vs. Lower two tertiles -0.30 (0.24) 0.46 -0.22 (0.25) 0.55
  Could not rate vs. Lower two tertiles -0.10 (0.27)   0.11 (0.29)  
Duration of chronic LBP >= 1 y vs. <1 y 0.27 (0.23) 0.24 0.32 (0.24) 0.18
Pain travels below knee Yes vs. No 0.43 (0.26) 0.09 -0.35 (0.28) 0.21
Days of LBP in last 3 mo Continuous 0.004 (0.005) 0.35 0.001 (0.005) 0.91
Intense LBP treatment Yes vs. No -0.08 (0.32) 0.81 0.23 (0.34) 0.50
Treatment group Individualized acupuncture vs. Usual care -1.05 (0.28) <.0001 -0.55 (0.30) 0.13
  Standardized acupuncture vs. Usual care -1.25 (0.28)   -0.66 (0.30)  
  Simulated acupuncture vs. Usual care -1.39 (0.28)   -0.47 (0.30)  
  1. * For ease of identification, all independent variables with P < 0.5 are in boldface type
  2. ** The parameter estimates β refer to the amount of change in the outcome that is based on a one unit change in that covariate (continuous variables) or a change in category (categorical variables)