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Table 2 Multivariate analysis of overall predictors of back related dysfunction (Roland score)

From: Characteristics of patients with chronic back pain who benefit from acupuncture

   Roland score*
   8-week 52-week
Variable Categories β ** (SE) P-value β ** (SE) P-value
Baseline Roland score Continuous 0.43 (0.05) <.0001 0.56 (0.05) <.0001
Baseline bothersomeness score Continuous 0.10 (0.10) 0.30 0.001 (0.10) 0.99
Any disability Yes vs. No 0.78 (0.46) 0.09 0.01 (0.49) 0.99
SF-36 Mental Health score Continuous -0.02 (0.01) 0.17 -0.01 (0.01) 0.58
Age Continuous -0.01 (0.02) 0.51 0.02 (0.02) 0.33
Gender Female vs. Male 0.42 (0.41) 0.32 0.37 (0.44) 0.39
Education level College graduate, Yes vs. No -0.19 (0.42) 0.65 -0.81 (0.44) 0.07
Employment Heavy lifting job vs. Unemployed -0.16 (0.70) 0.81 -1.76 (0.74) 0.16
  Light/Medium lifting job vs. Unemployed -0.53 (0.57)   -1.22 (0.60)  
  Sedentary job vs. Unemployed -0.61 (0.59)   -0.86 (0.63)  
  Employment unknown vs. Unemployed -1.07 (1.84)   -0.93 (1.90)  
Medication use Narcotics vs. None 0.43 (0.69) 0.81 1.77 (0.73) 0.04
  Other vs. None 0.02 (0.43)   0.12 (0.46)  
Self-efficacy High vs. Low 0.61 (0.93) 0.51 -0.20 (1.00) 0.84
Expectation of acup. help Top tertile vs. Lower two tertiles -0.58 (0.47) 0.42 -0.23 (0.50) 0.55
  Could not rate vs. Lower two tertiles -0.44 (0.53)   0.45 (0.56)  
Duration of chronic LBP >= 1 y vs. <1 y 0.24 (0.45) 0.60 0.49 (0.48) 0.30
Pain travels below knee Yes vs. No -0.02 (0.51) 0.98 -0.37 (0.54) 0.50
Days of LBP in last 3 mo Continuous 0.02 (0.01) 0.10 0.01 (0.01) 0.46
Intense LBP treatment Yes vs. No 1.20 (0.63) 0.06 0.51 (0.66) 0.44
Treatment group Individualized acupuncture vs. Usual care -2.38 (0.56) <.0001 -2.21 (0.59) 0.001
  Standardized acupuncture vs. Usual care -2.44 (0.55)   -1.81 (0.58)  
  Simulated acupuncture vs. Usual care -2.86 (0.55)   -1.03 (0.58)  
  1. * For ease of identification, all independent variables with P < 0.5 are in boldface type
  2. ** The parameter estimates β refer to the amount of change in the outcome that is based on a one unit change in that covariate (continuous variables) or a change in category (categorical variables)