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Table 3 Frequency of positive findings and the reliability of clinical examination items

From: Reliability of clinical tests to evaluate nerve function and mechanosensitivity of the upper limb peripheral nervous system

Test Frequency Kappa (Standard error) Test Frequency Kappa (Standard error)
MMT     PALPATION    
C4 0/31 0% NA Median, upper arm 7/31 22.6% 0.50 (0.18)
C5 4/31 12.9% 0.53 (0.18) Median, wrist 6/31 19.4% 0.79 (0.18)
C6 6/31 19.4% 0.90 (0.18) Radial, upper arm 8/31 25.8% 0.66 (0.18)
C7 2/31 6.5% 0.45 (0.15) Radial, distal radius 5/31 16.1% 0.67 (0.18)
C8 2/31 6.5% 0.64 (0.17) Radial, snuff box 4/31 12.9% 0.61 (0.18)
T1 2/31 6.5% 1.00 (0.18) Ulnar, upper arm 4/31 12.9% 0.36 (0.16)
     Ulnar, cubital fossa 5/31 16.1% 0.59 (0.18)
SENSORY TESTING        
Dermatomal Non-dermatomal 4/31 9/31 12.9% 29.0% 0.53 (0.13)     
       Meta-analysis Kappa (95% CI)
ULNT        
ULNT MEDIAN(1) 11/31 35.5% 0.54 (0.18)    MMT 0.68 (0.53, 0.83)
ULNT MEDIAN(2a) 11/31 35.5% 0.46 (0.18)    ULNT 0.45 (0.27, 0.63)
ULNT RADIAL(2b) 10/31 31.3% 0.44 (0.18)    Palpation 0.59 (0.46, 0.72)
ULNT ULNAR(3) 12/31 38.7% 0.36 (0.18)     
  1. ULNT: Upper limb neurodynamic test, MMT: Manual muscle test, CI: confidence interval