Increasing substance P levels in serum and synovial tissues from patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH)
- Hui Wang†1,
- Xin-Feng Zheng†1,
- Xiang Zhang1,
- Zheng Li1,
- Chao Shen1,
- Jun-Feng Zhu1,
- Yi-Min Cui1 and
- Xiao-Dong Chen1Email author
© Wang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
Received: 29 September 2013
Accepted: 10 March 2014
Published: 19 March 2014
The tachykininergic neurotransmitters have been proved to be involved in the inflammatory progress and chronic pain in series of disease. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the levels of substance P (SP) and its receptors NK-1 receptor (NK-1R) in both serum and synovial tissues of hip joint from patients with different stages of DDH, and to detect the possible correlation of serum SP levels with pain sensation and dysfunction of the hip joint.
SP levels in serum and synovial tissues from patients with DDH and DDH combined with osteoarthritis (DDH&OA) group were compared through immunohistochemistry (IHC), ELISA, and 2-step acetic acid extraction method respectively. Expression of NK-1R in synovial tissues was compared through IHC, quantitive Real-Time PCR (QRT-PCR) and Western-Blot. The severities of pain sensation and the functional activities of hip joint were assessed by Visual analogue scale (VAS) and Harris hip score (HHS). Correlations of serum SP levels with VAS, HHS and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were evaluated respectively in these groups.
Significantly elevated serum SP levels were detected in group of DDH and DDH&OA compared to that in normal group. IHC, QRT-PCR as well as tissue Elisa showed that SP levels in synovial tissue of DDH&OA group is stronger than that in DDH group. Serum SP levels in each group have no gender differences. The enhanced SP levels in synovial tissue mainly came from the segregation of peripheral nerve endings. Serum SP correlated with VAS and HHS in patients with DDH&OA (Male + Female). Serum SP correlated with HHS in patients with DDH (Male). Serum SP levels also correlated with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in patients with DDH&OA (Male + Female). Up-regulated expression of NK-1R was also observed in synovial tissue of patients with DDH&OA compared to patients with DDH, through western-blot, IHC, and QRT-PCR.
These findings indicated that the increasing SP levels in serum and synovial tissues, observed from patients with DDH to patients with DDH&OA, might associate with the loss of function and chronic pain sensation in hip joint. SP along with its receptors NK-1R might be involved in the progression of DDH into DDH&OA. In the future, inhibitors of SP as well as NK-1R may represent a novel pharmacotherapy target for pain relieving, inflammation alleviating and joint degeneration delaying for patients with DDH.
KeywordsSubstance P DDH Synovium NK-1 receptor Chronic pain Osteoarthritis
Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), caused by developmental disorder of hip joint, results in shallow acetabulum, slacking joint capsule and subluxation of femoral head which always lead to chronic pain as well as joint dysfunction. The incidence rate of female and male with DDH is approximately 4–10:1 in different countries[1, 2]. The pathogenesis of DDH includes: susceptibility to the X chromosome, genetic mutation, breech presentation, swaddling position, and mechanical factors of hip joint during acquired environment[3–5]. Besides, DDH is often accompanied by series of morphological and anatomic changes in hip joint, which bring about joint space narrowing, articular surface abrasion, secondary osteoarthritis, synovial hyperplasia, and cystic change in subchondral bone[6, 7].
Pain in hip joint is a very common symptom for DDH, being related to both motion and rest. Furthermore, the degree of pain sensation is always associated with the progress of degeneration in hip joint according to clinical observations. However, so far, pathophysiologic mechanisms of pain in DDH are not yet clear. According to the known theories, femur acetabulum impingement, abrasion of articular surface and labrum injuries might all contribute to the occurrence of pain in hip joint[8, 9].
Currently, the roles of tachykinin family and associated mediators played in pain and inflammation, have attracted increasing consensus in the field of molecular-biology on clinical disease[10, 11]. Among these neuropeptides, substance P (SP) along with its specific receptors NK-1R were deemed as crucial factors in pain induction, which have been proved in both human and rat model of knee osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis[12–14]. Besides, the up-regulation of SP and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was observed in hip joint capsule, synovium and subchondral bone in patients with osteoarthritis[15, 16]. On the other hand, being the member of tachykinin family, SP is mainly secreted by sensory neurons in both central and peripheral nerve systems, which indicated that these neurotransmitters probably play a vital role in joint pain mediation and transmission. However, up to now, the investigation of occurrence and transmission of pain sensation in hip joint of DDH is still limited.
Therefore, this study was designed to detect the level of SP and its receptors NK-1R in both serum and synovium of hip joint in patients with DDH and DDH&OA. In addition, we also want to investigate the main source of SP in synovium, and the correlation of SP with chronic pain sensation and the function of hip joint in different stages of DDH.
Patients and materials
Clinical data and samples included in this study were obtained from patients underwent surgery treatment in our institution between March 2011 and December 2012. 45 hips in patients (ranges: 35–48 years, mean: 40.4 years) with chronic osteoarthritis combined with DDH (Crowe:I ~ III) were set to DDH&OA. Including criteria were osteoarthritis secondary to DDH, severe degenerative arthritis of grade 4 in the classification of Kellgren and Lawrence[19, 20]. 56 patients with DDH (Crowe:I ~ III, ranges: 21–34 years, mean: 28.5 years) which defined as the hip having a sharp angle <45°and centre edge(CE) angle <20°[21, 22] were included in this cohort. Severe pain sensation and dysfunction in hip joint were common performances for patients in both of these groups. Besides, 31 normal volunteers (ranges: 22–38 years, mean: 33 years) were also recruited in this study to serve as control group.
Data and clinical details of patients and normal people recruited in this study
40.4 ± 5.3 (35-48)
28.5 ± 6.4 (21-34)
33 ± 4.5 (22-38)
23.5 ± 1.3
22.7 ± 0.8
22.2 ± 1.1
3.8 ± 0.5
1.3 ± 0.4
8.4 ± 2.4*Δ
4.7 ± 1.5
2.4 ± 0.7
ESR (mm/1st h)
16.8 ± 4.6*
12.3 ± 3.6*
6.2 ± 1.6
Harris hip score
37 ± 6.4**#
75.7 ± 8.3*
96 ± 2.5
Visual analogue score
5.7 ± 2.4Δ
3.2 ± 1.8
The diagnosis of DDH was based on impingement test as well as Sharp, CE angles in pelvic anteroposterior radiograph by chief physician (Dr Chen) in clinic. Clinical and laboratory data for the entire groups are presented in Table 1. Variables such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) was measured by clinical standard technology. Synovial tissues of hip joint in DDH&OA were acquired from the operation of Total hip joint arthroplasty (THA). Synovial samples in DDH were obtained during the operation of periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) and osteochondrocyte plasty (OCP) for patients with testify of opening joint capsule, which is characteristic in our department[23, 24]. Samples of synovial in fossa acetabuli collected from operation were cut into pieces of 1 × 1cm2 and immerged into RNA Later (Ambion AM7021 USA) for 12 hs and then stored at −80°C for RNA and protein extraction.
Criteria for exclusion
Patients recruited in this study had no secondary osteoarthritis (OA) as a consequence of inflammation, rheumatism, osteonecrosis, trauma, gout or tumor. Kidney or thyroid insufficiency was also an exclusion criterion. Drug therapies with OPIATES or NSAIDS were not allowed. Besides, patients with DDH subsequent by slipped epiphysis, traumatic osteoarthritis and those who had experienced orthopedic hip surgery were also excluded.
The study was performed based on the recommendations from the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the Ethical Committee of Shanghai Jiaotong University School Medicine Affiliate Xinhua Hospital. Samples prepared from operation were only for testing purposes, and were acknowledged, consented, and signed by patients.
Quantification of substance P
Collected blood samples were allowed to clot for at least 30 min and then centrifuged at 3000 r/min for 15 min to obtain serum. Serum samples were then kept at −80°C before analysis. The concentration of SP in serum was determined by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit (Cayman, catalog NO.583751, USA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions, which provides accurate measurements of SP with a working range of 1.5 to 500 pg/ml. It was verified by plenty of studies that the SP antibody used here recognizes the intact peptide and shows 100% specificity for SP, 93% for SP2-11, and 30% for SP7-11 and was without cross-reactivity with neurokinin A (2.7%) or neurokinin B (0.04%)[25, 26].
The concentration of SP in synovium was evaluated by the same ELISA Kit described above. SP levels in synovium were extracted by two-step 2% acetic-acid[27, 28]. Briefly, 10-50 mg synovial samples were obtained from patients in separate groups as described in Table 1. We cut the tissue into fragments of 1-4 mm3. The first extraction was carried out by 1 ml 2% acetic-acid in 95°C for 15 mins. The supernatant regarded as SP from nerve endings was collected and then quickly frozen in −80°C. The second extraction was implemented by 1 ml 2% acetic-acid in 95°C for 45 mins. Supernatant was extracted and deemed as SP from non-nerve tissue or cells. The levels of SP were normalized to the weight of the tissue samples and expressed as pg/mg.
Assessment of HHS and VAS score
Assessment of hip joint mobility was performed using Harris hip score (HHS) by Dr Zhu. Along with HHS score, a visual analogue scale (VAS) was also applied for the assessment of pain severity of patients in separate group. In order to determine VAS score, a 100-mm horizontal line without scaling was designed in which 0 was marked as “no pain in hip” and 10 was marked as “unbearable pain”. Patients were then instructed to place a vertical mark reflecting their soreness severity. Scores of both HHS and VAS in different groups were shown in Table 1.
RNA isolation and quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR)
Synovial tissues from fossa acetabuli were obtained during operation of total hip arthroplasty (THA) or Bernese periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) as previously described from patients of 20 with DDH, 35 with DDH&OA. The tissues were dissected into small pieces of 80 mg and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen. Frozen tissues (100 mg) were grinded by mortars into granular powder and was dissolved in 2 ml volumes of Trizol reagent kit (Takara, Code: D9108B, Japan). cDNA was synthesized from 2 mg total RNA through reverse transcription using a TaKaRa RNA PCR Kit (TaKaRa, DRR057A, Japan) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. The sequences for primers (TaKaRa, Biotechnology Co. Ltd, Japan) used to amplify mRNA were as follows: TAC1R: F: 5′-GTCGTGTGCATGATCGAATGG-3′, R: 5′-TTGCTCGTGGTAGCGGTCAG-3′; TAC1: F: 5′-GGTACGACAGCGACCAGATCA-3′, R: 5′-CCCGTTTGCCCATTAATCCA-3′. Real-time PCR was carried out using 200 ng of cDNA and PrimeScript® RT-PCR Kit (Takara, DRR064A, Japan) in 96-well plates in a ABI 7500 Sequence Detection System (ABI, Co. Ltd, USA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Relative quantification of each gene was normalized to GAPDH. We used the 2-ΔΔCt (cycle threshold) method to calculate relative gene expression levels as previously described. Results are presented as fold changes in gene expression normalized to GAPDH and relative to control conditions (DDH group). Data of each sample was displayed on triplicate wells during every PCR amplification circulation. Analysis of the results is based on at least three individual experiments.
Immunohistochemistry and assessment
The synovial samples were dehydrated in a graded series of ethanol and embedded in paraffin for immunohistochemistry. The tissues were cut into sections measuring 5 um and were mounted on anti-off slides. Sections from each group underwent citrate buffer antigen retrieval. After incubated overnight with the primary antibody NK-1R (1:1000) (Abcam, ab75516, UK) and substance P(1:1000) (Abcam, ab14184, UK), slides were rinsed in phosphate buffer saline (3×5 minutes) and incubated with biotinylated secondary antibody (Dako, Ely, UK). Finally, streptavidin-biotin complex (1:2000) (Amersham Life Science Inc, USA) was used for the visualization of the immunoreactions. From every synovium (8 per group), two sections were acquired at different depths and eight microscopic fields from each section were photographed and analyzed. Thus, in every synovial sample of separate group, 16 microscopic fields were collected. Images of the microscopic fields were captured by a camera (DEI 750, Optronics Engineering, USA) attached to the microscope. The immune activity was measured as the area in mm2 using the software (Image-Pro plus 6.0, USA) as previously described. The results were expressed as the positive staining area (mm2) in relation to the total area of each microscopic field.
Synovial samples of different groups (150 mg/sample) were grounded into powder with liquid nitrogen. Total protein was extracted using a Western & IP Cell Lysis Kit (Beyotime, Shanghai, China). The concentration of protein in the cell lysate was determined using a microplate reader (Thermo, Finland) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. For each sample, the whole cell extracts equivalent to 40 mg total protein which were loaded into a 10% SDS–polyacrylamide gel, separated by electrophoresis and electrotransferred to a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane. Non-specific binding was blocked by incubating the PVDF membrane with 10 mM TBS, 1.0% Tween, and 10% dehydrated skimmed milk. Following the blocking procedure, the membranes were incubated overnight with antibodies against NK-1R (1:1000) (Abcam, ab75516, UK) in 4°C. The performance of immunoblotting on the same membranes using antibodies against GAPDH (Beyotime, Shanghai, China) was used as a loading control to assess the group differences. Gray-value of respective well in image strip was analyzed by software (Image J, NIH, USA) and normalized to value of GAPDH. Data of each group was acquired by three times of experiments at least.
Samples and blood index acquired from separate groups were shown in Table 1. Mean ages were 28.5 and 40.4 years in groups of DDH and DDH&OA respectively. Significant differences in serum CRP, ESR as well as VAS and HHS were observed in comparisons among DDH, DDH&OA and Control group.
Change of SP levels in serum and synovium
SP in serum
SP in synovium
To identify the concentration of SP in synovial tissue of hip joint, and to the possible sources of SP, we adopted the two-step extraction method which has been described above. According to the outcome of ELISA (Figure 1B), SP is found both in the first and second extraction which stands for free nerve endings (neuronal) and non-neuronal tissues respectively. According to the remarkable difference of SP levels between the first and second extraction in DDH&OA (Figure 1B), we could speculate that the production of SP in synovium was mainly secreted from peripheral neuron which present as the first extraction. Moreover, from the first and total extraction from synovium, we could get significantly higher SP levels in DDH&OA than that in DDH.
Correlation of SP in serum with VAS, HHS and ESR in patients among different groups
Correlation test of serum SP levels with HHS, VAS and ESR in patients with DDH and DDH&OA
Correlation of serum substance P levels
F + M
F + M
NK-1R is up-regulated in synovial tissue of patients with DDH&OA compared to DDH
SP expression in synovial tissue
IHC staining as well as QRT-PCR were implemented to detect the expression of SP in synovium of hip joint. According to IHC staining and gray value analysis (Figure 2A-C), positive staining of SP was mainly observed in silk-like and nerve bundle-like nerve endings in synovium. And we can easily get stronger staining of SP in DDH&OA compared to DDH group. So it is with the comparison of mRNA expression of SP from synovial tissue between these groups (Figure 3C).
It is extensively accepted that, in advanced cases of DDH, which frequently combined with severe degeneration and osteoarthritis, severe pain sensation and dysfunction in hip joint would always be the primary complaint[31, 32]. Current studies have focused mainly on the members of tachykinin family as well as its roles in the pain creation of osteoarthritis. Besides, the relationship between neuropeptides and cytokines in joint fluid and serum of patients with OA or RA were also studied[33, 34]. Moreover, BN/GRP and SP in both serum and synovial fluid were found correlated with inflammation index such as CRP and ESR in patients with RA in hip joint. These observations indicated that, as a typical nerve tachykinin, SP as well as some of the other neuropeptides might associated with inflammation and degeneration in hip joint and may also have some relationships with the occurrence of pain sensation.
In our study, the level of nerve tachykinin SP is up-regulated in both serum and synovial tissue from patients with DDH&OA compared to that in patients with DDH. Through serum test, we also observed some positive relationship between SP and ESR. These findings suggest that SP might reflect somatic pain sensation to some extend and associate with the severity of inflammation. As we know, SP along with other neuropeptides can stimulate the release of inflammatory mediators such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α from both blood monocytes as well as fibroblast-like synoviocyte (FLS) in human body[36–38]. Moreover, SP may favor the generation of memory Th17 cells by inducing IL-1β, IL-23, TNF-like 1A expression by monocytes. These mediators on the one hand could act as chemoattractant molecule for further leucocyte migration. On the other hand, they might also directly bring about inflammatory response of the target cells through corresponding receptors and up-regulate the production of PGE2 from inflammatory cells which will advance the inflammation and pain.
In our study, NK-1R, the specific receptors of SP, revealed strong and visible immune-staining tendency in synovial tissue from varied stages of DDH group. Previous studies have proved that inflammatory reactions in response to an immune irritation are strengthened in neuropathic animals and are partly mediated by NK-1R[41–43]. Therefore, in this study, the up-regulated expression of NK-1R probably reflected a feedback, inducing series of intracellular signaling mechanisms to fit the negative stimuli outside. Also, researches demonstrated the validity of NK-1R antagonists in relieving cutaneous orofacial inflammatory pain and reducing hyperalgesia and cartilage destruction in the inflammatory joint in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis[44, 45]. Herein, we might hold the hypothesis that NK-1R antagonists could have therapeutic value in the treatment of pathological changes and the relief of arthritis evolvement in patients with DDH.
We know that SP stems from both neuronal and non-neuronal cells such as fibroblasts and some immune cells within the synovial tissue. According to the comparisons from tissue ELISA [Figure 1B], we speculate that SP in synovial tissue might mostly derived from segregation of peripheral free nerve endings, which coincided with that of previous research[46, 47]. As neuropeptides were mainly secreted from DRG and transmitted through peripheral free nerve fibers, our findings indicated that more nerve fibers might invade into synovial tissue with the progress from DDH to DDH&OA, which probably involved in the upgrading of inflammation and pain sensation.
Several limitations also existed in this study. Firstly, it is impossible to obtain perfectly normal synovial specimens according to medical ethics requirement. Secondly, the age of patients in these groups was as close as possible. In our research, the mean age of DDH&OA group was 40.4 years, while the average age of patients with DDH was 28.3 years. We know that SP levels in tissue could change with ages[48, 49]. Hence, doubtlessly, age differences between groups could affect the results. However, previous research has proved that SP levels in both animals and human may decrease with age[50, 51]. In our study, patients in group of DDH&OA who were older than group of DDH represented higher levels of SP in both serum and tissue, which further certified that SP levels increase conspicuously in DDH&OA group compared to DDH group.
In summary, our data firstly demonstrate that SP levels increased in serum of patients with DDH. Further increase of SP levels was observed in serum and synovial tissue, along with the progression from DDH to DDH&OA. This increase might cope with the dysfunction of hip joint as well as the upgrade of pain sensation. These findings together with previously published investigation, suggest that SP might associate with the creation of chronic pain and the inflammation progress of hip joint in DDH. SP along with its receptors NK-1R might become a promising therapy target for future drug research in relieving the progress of pain sensation and arthritis severities in DDH. However, how SP involved in the progression of arthritis and its possible bio-mechanisms performed on the degeneration of cartilage and subchondral bone in DDH still need further exploration.
Developmental dysplasia of the hip
DDH combined with osteoarthritis
Neurokinin 1 Receptor
Visual analogue scale
Analysis of variance
Harris hip score
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
Calcitonin gene-related peptide
Total hip arthroplasty
Glyceraldehydes phosphate dehydrogenase
Body mass index.
This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81171705) and National Natural Science Foundation of Youth in China (81101381).
- Lisle R, Boekelaar M, Stannage K, Whitewood C: Delayed diagnosis of developmental dislocation of the hip: the Western Australian experience. ANZ J Surgery. 2012, 82: 612-615. 10.1111/j.1445-2197.2012.06110.x.View Article
- Shi D, Dai J, Zhu P, Qin J, Zhu L, Zhu H, Zhao B, Qiu X, Xu Z, Chen D, Yi L, Ikegawa S, Jiang Q: Association of the D repeat polymorphism in the ASPN gene with developmental dysplasia of the hip: a case–control study in Han Chinese. Arthritis Res Ther. 2011, 13: R27-10.1186/ar3252.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Bo N, Peng W, Xinghong P, Ma R: Early cartilage degeneration in a rat experimental model of developmental dysplasia of the hip. Connect Tissue Res. 2012, 53: 513-520. 10.3109/03008207.2012.700346.View ArticlePubMed
- Ortiz-Neira CL, Paolucci EO, Donnon T: A meta-analysis of common risk factors associated with the diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of the hip in newborns. Eur J Radiol. 2012, 81: e344-351. 10.1016/j.ejrad.2011.11.003.View ArticlePubMed
- de Hundt M, Vlemmix F, Bais JM, Hutton EK, de Groot CJ, Mol BW, Kok M: Risk factors for developmental dysplasia of the hip: a meta-analysis. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2012, 165: 8-17. 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2012.06.030.View ArticlePubMed
- Shi D, Dai J, Ikegawa S, Jiang Q: Genetic study on developmental dysplasia of the hip. Eur J Clin Invest. 2012, 42: 1121-1125. 10.1111/j.1365-2362.2012.02682.x.View ArticlePubMed
- Hogervorst T, Eilander W, Fikkers JT, Meulenbelt I: Hip ontogenesis: how evolution, genes, and load history shape hip morphotype and cartilotype. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2012, 470: 3284-3296. 10.1007/s11999-012-2511-4.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Stelzeneder D, Mamisch TC, Kress I, Domayer SE, Werlen S, Bixby SD, Millis MB, Kim YJ: Patterns of joint damage seen on MRI in early hip osteoarthritis due to structural hip deformities. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2012, 20: 661-669. 10.1016/j.joca.2012.03.014.View ArticlePubMed
- Nakamura J, Oinuma K, Ohtori S, Watanabe A, Shigemura T, Sasho T, Saito M, Suzuki M, Takahashi K, Kishida S: Distribution of hip pain in osteoarthritis patients secondary to developmental dysplasia of the hip. Mod Rheumatol. 2013, 23: 119-124. 10.3109/s10165-012-0638-5.View ArticlePubMed
- Hung SP, Sheu MJ, Ma MC, Hu JT, Sun YY, Lee CC, Chung YC, Tsai YJ, Wang JY, Chen CL: Runx1-deficient afferents impair visceral nociception, exacerbating dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis. Brain Behav Immun. 2013, 1591 (13): 00457-1-
- Mitchell AJ, Lone AM, Tinoco AD, Saghatelian A: Proteolysis controls endogenous substance P levels. PLos One. 2013, 8: e68638-10.1371/journal.pone.0068638.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Ahmed AS, Li J, Erlandsson-Harris H, Stark A, Bakalkin G, Ahmed M: Suppression of pain and joint destruction by inhibition of the proteasome system in experimental osteoarthritis. Pain. 2012, 153: 18-26. 10.1016/j.pain.2011.08.001.View ArticlePubMed
- Uematsu T, Sakai A, Ito H, Suzuki H: Intra-articular administration of tachykinin NK-1 receptor antagonists reduces hyperalgesia and cartilage destruction in the inflammatory joint in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011, 668: 163-168. 10.1016/j.ejphar.2011.06.037.View ArticlePubMed
- Ferland CE, Laverty S, Beaudry F, Vachon P: Gait analysis and pain response of two rodent models of osteoarthritis. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2011, 97: 603-610. 10.1016/j.pbb.2010.11.003.View ArticlePubMed
- Ferland CE, Beaudry F, Vachon P: Antinociceptive effects of eugenol evaluated in a monoiodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis rat model. Phytother Res. 2012, 26: 1278-1285. 10.1002/ptr.3725.View ArticlePubMed
- Ahmed AS, Li J, Ahmed M, Hua L, Yakovleva T, Ossipov MH, Bakalkin G, Stark A: Attenuation of pain and inflammation in adjuvant-induced arthritis by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Arthritis Rheum. 2010, 62: 2160-2169.PubMed
- Liu D, Jiang LS, Dai LY: Substance P and its receptors in bone metabolism. Neuropeptide. 2007, 41: 271-283. 10.1016/j.npep.2007.05.003.View Article
- Hartig-Andreasen C, Søballe K, Troelsen A: The role of the acetabular labrum in hip dysplasia. Acta Orthop. 2013, 84: 60-64. 10.3109/17453674.2013.765626.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Terjesen T, Gunderson RB: Radiographic evaluation of osteoarthritis of the hip: an inter-observer study of 61 hips treated for late-detected developmental hip dislocation. Acta Orthop. 2012, 83: 185-189. 10.3109/17453674.2012.665331.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Kellgren JH, Lawrence JS: Radiological assessment of osteoarthrosis. Ann Rheum Dis. 1957, 16: 494-502. 10.1136/ard.16.4.494.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Nakamura S, Ninomiya S, Nakamura T: Primary osteoarthritis of the hip joint in Japan. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1989, 241: 190-196.PubMed
- Cashman JP, Round J, Taylor G, Clarke NM: The natural history of developmental dysplasia of the hip after early supervised treatment in the Pavlik harness. A prospective, longitudinal follow-up. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2002, 84: 418-425. 10.1302/0301-620X.84B3.12230.View ArticlePubMed
- Zhu J, Chen X, Cui Y, Shen C, Cai G: Mid-term results of Bernese periacetabular osteotomy for developmental dysplasia of hip in middle aged patients. Int Orthop. 2013, 37: 589-594. 10.1007/s00264-013-1790-z.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Albers CE, Steppacher SD, Ganz R, Tannast M, Siebenrock KA: Impingement Adversely Affects 10-year Survivorship After Periacetabular Osteotomy for DDH. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2013, 471: 1602-1614. 10.1007/s11999-013-2799-8.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Öztürk N, Erin N, Tüzüner S: Changes in tissue substance P levels in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Neurosurgery. 2010, 67: 1655-1660. 10.1227/NEU.0b013e3181fa7032.View ArticlePubMed
- Yamada M, Ogata M, Kawai M, Mashima Y, Nishida T: Substance P and its metabolites in normal human tears. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002, 43: 2622-2625.PubMed
- Erin N, Ulusoy O: Differentiation of neuronal from non-neuronal substance P. Regul Pept. 2009, 152: 108-113. 10.1016/j.regpep.2008.10.006.View ArticlePubMed
- Erin N, Ersoy Y, Ercan F, Akici A, Oktay S: NK-1 antagonist CP99994 inhibits stress-induced mast cell degranulation in rats. Clin Exp D ermatol. 2004, 29: 644-648. 10.1111/j.1365-2230.2004.01613.x.View Article
- Santangelo KS, Bertone AL: Effective reduction of the interleukin-1β transcript in osteoarthritis-prone guinea pig chondrocytes via short hairpin RNA mediated RNA interference influences gene expression of mediators implicated in disease pathogenesis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2011, 19: 1449-1457. 10.1016/j.joca.2011.09.004.View ArticlePubMed
- Wu X, Li SH, Lou LM, Cai ZD: The techniques of soft tissue release and true socket reconstruction in total hip arthroplasty for patients with severe developmental dysplasia of the hip. Int Orthop. 2012, 36: 1795-1801. 10.1007/s00264-012-1622-6.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Al-Moussa S, Moroz P, Beaulé PE: Effect of pelvic osteotomy in the skeletally immature on acetabular coverage. HSS J. 2012, 8: 235-239. 10.1007/s11420-012-9286-8.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Li J, Kreicbergs A, Bergstrom J, Stark A, Ahmed M: Site-specific CGRP innervation coincides with bone formation during fracture healing and modeling: a study in rat angulated tibia. J Orthop Res. 2007, 25: 1204-1212. 10.1002/jor.20406.View ArticlePubMed
- Ogbonna AC, Clark AK, Gentry C, Hobbs C, Malcangio M: Pain-like behaviour and spinal changes in the monosodium iodoacetate model of osteoarthritis in C57Bl/6 mice. Eur J Pain. 2013, 4: 514-526.View Article
- Zhang RX, Ren K, Dubner R: Osteoarthritis pain mechanisms: basic studies in animal models. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2013, 9: 1308-1315.View Article
- Grimsholm O, Rantapää-Dahlqvist S, Forsgren S: Levels of gastrin-releasing peptide and substance P in synovial fluid and serum correlate with levels of cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2005, 7: R416-R426. 10.1186/ar1503.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Carvalho B, Clark DJ, Angst MS: Local and systemic release of cytokines, nerve growth factor, prostaglandin E2, and substance P in incisional wounds and serum following cesarean delivery. J Pain. 2008, 9: 650-657. 10.1016/j.jpain.2008.02.004.View ArticlePubMed
- O’ Shaughnessy MC, Vetsika EK, Inglis JJ, Carleson J, Haigh R, Kidd BL, Winyard PG: The effect of substance P on nitric oxide release in a rheumatoid arthritis model. Inflamm Res. 2006, 55: 236-240. 10.1007/s00011-006-0079-8.View Article
- Lambert N, Lescoulié PL, Yassine-Diab B, Enault G, Mazières B, De Préval C, Cantagrel A: Substance P enhances cytokine-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1) expression on cultured rheumatoid fibroblast-like synoviocytes. Clin Exp Immunol. 1998, 113: 269-275. 10.1046/j.1365-2249.1998.00621.x.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Cunin P, Caillon A, Corvaisier M, Garo E, Scotet M, Blanchard S, Delneste Y, Jeannin P: The tachykinins substance P and hemokinin-1 favor the generation of human memory Th17 cells by inducing IL-1β, IL-23, and TNF-like 1A expression by monocytes. J Immunol. 2011, 186: 4175-4182. 10.4049/jimmunol.1002535.View ArticlePubMed
- Schaible HG, Ebersberger A, Von Banchet GS: Mechanisms of pain in arthritis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002, 966: 343-354. 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2002.tb04234.x.View ArticlePubMed
- Muto Y, Sakai A, Sakamoto A, Suzuki H: Activation of NK1 receptors in the locus coeruleus induces analgesia through noradrenergic-mediated descending inhibition in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Br J Pharmacol. 2012, 166: 1047-1057. 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01820.x.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Lee SE, Kim JH: Involvement of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide in development and maintenance of neuropathic pain from spinal nerve injury model of rat. Neurosci Res. 2007, 58: 245-249. 10.1016/j.neures.2007.03.004.View ArticlePubMed
- Jang JH, Nam TS, Paik KS, Leem JW: Involvement of peripherally released substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide in mediating mechanical hyperalgesia in a traumatic neuropathy model of the rat. Neurosci Lett. 2004, 360: 129-132. 10.1016/j.neulet.2004.02.043.View ArticlePubMed
- Makino A, Sakai A, Ito H, Suzuki H: Involvement of tachykinins and NK1 receptor in the joint inflammation with collagen type II-specific monoclonal antibody-induced arthritis in mice. J Nippon Med Sch. 2012, 79: 129-38. 10.1272/jnms.79.129.View ArticlePubMed
- Luccarini P, Henry M, Alvarez P, Gaydier AM, Dallel R: Contribution of neurokinin 1 receptors in the cutaneous orofacial inflammatory pain. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2003, 368: 320-323. 10.1007/s00210-003-0799-z.View ArticlePubMed
- Saito T, Koshino T: Nerve distribution in synovium of osteoarthritic knees. Clin Calcium. 2002, 12: 59-62.PubMed
- Tesarz J, Hoheisel U, Wiedenhöfer B, Mense S: Sensory innervation of the thoracolumbar fascia in rats and humans. Neuroscience. 2011, 194: 302-308.View ArticlePubMed
- Saito T, Koshino T: Distribution of neuropeptides in synovium of the knee with osteoarthritis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2000, 376: 172-182.View ArticlePubMed
- Vilensky JA, O’Connor BL, Fortin JD, Merkel GJ, Jimenez AM, Scofield BA, Kleiner JB: Histologic analysis of neural elements in the human sacroiliac joint. Spine. 2002, 27: 1202-1207. 10.1097/00007632-200206010-00012.View ArticlePubMed
- Engman J, Åhs F, Furmark T, Linnman C, Pissiota A, Appel L, Frans Ö, Langström B, Fredrikson M: Age, sex and NK1 receptors in the human brain – a positron emission tomography study with [11C]GR205171. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2012, 22: 562-568. 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2011.12.005.View ArticlePubMed
- Yamazaki M, Sato I: Distribution of substance P and the calcitonin gene-related peptide in the human tensor tympani muscle. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2013, Epub ahead of print
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2474/15/92/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.